Bromeliaceae, is a family of monocot flowering plants known as “Bromeliads” or “Bromeliads”. The plant family Bromeliaceae consists of about 3,170 species, most of which come from tropical America, a few are found in subtropical America and one in tropical West Africa, namely the Pitcairnia Feliciana species.
Bromeliaceae family, most of which are able to store water in their bodies, so they can survive in desert areas as succulents.
The many varieties of the Bromeliaceae family make this plant an exotic ornamental plant that has many fans around the world. One of the largest species is Puya raimondii, which can grow up to 3-4 m in vegetative growth, flowers reach 9-10 m, and the smallest is Tillandsia usneoides “spanish mosh” or Spanish moss.
The Bromeliaceae family has a very diverse form. The leaves are patterned and colored, from maroon, shades of green, golden, red, yellow, white, cream varies, there are also purple and pink. In some varieties have different colors on the top and bottom of the leaves.
The flowers produced by bromeliads are much more diverse. Some flowers can reach a height of 10 meters, and some are as small as 2-3 mm. There are upright stems can be branched and others depending on the species. Terrestrial bromeliads have a complex root system that collects water and nutrients, while epiphytic bromeliads only grow hard, thin roots that attach themselves to trees and rocks. In some bromeliads can even emit a fragrant aroma.
The spread of bromeliads on the American continent is marked by many new species that appear or are found. The greatest number of primitive species of the bromeliaceae family are in the highlands of the Andes in South America. Species found in west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana is the only bromeliaceae family that is not found in the Americas, this is a question for botanists, “Why are there so many bromeliad families found in America, and in Africa only one species is found?”. It is estimated that there was a long-distance dispersal from America to Africa about 12 million years ago.
Bromelioideae - (32 genera, 861 species) Pitcairnioideae - (16 genera, 1030 species) Tillandsioideae - (9 genera, 1277 species)
(32 genera, 861 species)
Acanthostachys (2 species) Aechmea (255 species) Ananas (7 species) Androlepis (1 species) Araeococcus (9 Species) Billbergia (64 species) Bromeliads (56 species) Canistropsis (11 species) Canistrum (13 species) Cryptanthus (66 species) Deinacanthon (1 species) Disteganthus (2 species) Edmundoa (3 species) Eduandrea (1 Species) Fascicularia (1 species) Fernseea (2 species) Greigia (33 species) Hohenbergia (56 species) Hohenbergiopsis (1 species) Lymania (9 species) Neoglaziovia (3 species) Neoregelia (112 species) Nidularium (45 Species) Ochagavia (4 species) Orthophytum (53 species) Portea (9 species) Pseudaechmea (1 species) Pseudananas (1 species) Quesnelia (20 species) Ronnbergia (14 species) Ursulaea (2 species) Wittrokia (6 species)
(16 genera, 1030 species)
Brewcaria L.B.Sm., Steyerm. & H. Rob. (6 species) Brocchinia Schult.f. ex Schult. & Schult.f. (20 species) Connellia N.E.Br. (6 species) Cottendorfia Schult.f. (1 species) Deuterocohnia Mez (18 species) Dyckia Schult.f. (130 species) Encholirium Schult.f. (22 Species) Fosterella L.B.Sm. (30 species) Hechtia Klotzsch (52 species) Lindmania (38 species) Navia (93 species) Pepinia Brongn. ex André (57 species) Pitcairnia L'Hér. (331 species) Puya Molina (219 species) Sequencia (L.B.Sm.) Givnish (1 species) Steyerbromelia L.B.Sm. (6 species)
(9 genera, 1277 species)
Alcantarea (23 species) Catopsis Griseb. (18 species) Glomeropitcairnia (2 species) Guzmania Ruiz & Pav. (207 species) Mezobromelia (9 Species) Racinaea (61 species) Tillandsia L. (609 species) Vriesea Lindl. (261 species) Werauhia J.R. Grant (87 species)